Regulatory and helper T-cell subsets in health and disease
CD4+ T-cells are central players of adaptive immune responses, because they co-ordinate the activity of several other immune cells such as dendritic cells (DC), B cells and cytotoxic CD8+T-cells. CD4+T-cells can be subdivided into two broad subsets of helper and regulatory cells, which promote and suppress immune responses, respectively. Both regulatory and helper T-cells can produce Interleukin-10 (IL-10), which is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine but also promotes cytotoxic T-cell responses and B-cell antibody production. Consequently, IL-10 has a dual role in autoimmunity and cancer: On the one hand, it is required to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis and to prevent colitis, but on the other hand it could promote the generation of pathogenic autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Also in cancer IL-10 might have a dual role.
Regulatory T-cells can be sub-divided into the well-defined CD25+Tregs, which express the lineage-defining transcription factor FOXP3, and Tr1-cells, which produce high levels of IL-10. It is debated whether Tr1-cells represent an independent differentiation lineage or only a transient and unstable activation stage. We identified a population of cytotoxic Tr1-like cells that express the lineage-defining transcription factor Eomesodermin. These Tr1-cells, but not FOXP3+Tregs, were functionally impaired in systemic lupus erythematosus and in inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting a key role in these diseases. Their role in cancer is under current investigation.
The function of helper T-cell derived IL-10 is poorly understood. We identified a population of auto-reactive CCR6+ memory T-cells, which have a context-dependent helper/regulatory function: IL-10 produced by these CCR6+ T-cells inhibited auto-reactive T-cell proliferation induced by immature DC, but also promoted IgG production from naive B-cells. IL-10 producing CCR6+ T-cells are distinct from other known T-cell subsets, and promoted autoantibody production in SLE, suggesting that they play a pathogenic role. Finally, auto-reactive CCR6+T-cells producing pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-g and GM-CSF, but not IL-10, are enriched together with virus-specific Th1-cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients following attacks, suggesting that these two T-cell subsets promote respectively relapses and anti-viral immune surveillance in the central nervous system.
- Suppression of pathogenic T-cell responses by Tr1-cells in multiple sclerosis (FISM).
- Signalling and functional consequences of IL-2 on Tr1-cells (Roche).
- Regulation of pathogen-specific T-cell responses in AD-HIES patients with impaired STAT3 signalling (Telethon).
- Targeting Tr1-cells in cancer (AIRC).
- Role of CD4+ T-cell subsets in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (Cariplo, C. Vasco).
- Validation of novel prognostic factors in blood of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patients (AST, C. Vasco).
|Nome / Name||Ruolo / Role|
|Elena Carelli||PhD Studentfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Francesca Clemente||Graduate Studentemail@example.com|
|Giorgia Moschetti||Post Docfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Nadia Pulvirenti||PhD Studentemail@example.com|
|Morena Scantamburlo||Graduate Studentfirstname.lastname@example.org|
|Ylenia Silvestri||Post Docemail@example.com|
|Maria Chiara Vasco||Staff Scientistfirstname.lastname@example.org|
- Ex vivo microRNA and gene expression profiling of human Tr1-like cells suggests a role for miR-92a and -125a in the regulation of EOMES and IL-10R
De Simone M, Chirichella M, Emming S, Mazzara S, Ranzani V, Gruarin P, Moschetti G, Pulvirenti N, Maglie S, Vasco C, Crosti MC, Rossetti G, Pagani M, Abrignani S, Monticelli S, Geginat J.
Eur J Immunol. 2021 Sep 15. doi: 10.1002/eji.202149315. Online ahead of print.
- Clonally expanded EOMES+ Tr1-like cells in primary and metastatic tumors are associated with disease progression.
Bonnal RJP, Rossetti G, Lugli E, De Simone M, Gruarin P, Brummelman J, Drufuca L, Passaro M, Bason R, Gervasoni F, Della Chiara G, D’Oria C, Martinovic M, Curti S, Ranzani V, Cordiglieri C, Alvisi G, Mazza EMC, Oliveto S, Silvestri Y, Carelli E, Mazzara S, Bosotti R, Sarnicola ML, Godano C, Bevilacqua V, Lorenzo M, Siena S, Bonoldi E, Sartore-Bianchi A, Amatu A, Veronesi G, Novellis P, Alloisio M, Giani A, Zucchini N, Opocher E, Ceretti AP, Mariani N, Biffo S, Prati D, Bardelli A, Geginat J, Lanzavecchia A, Abrignani S, Pagani M.
Nat Immunol. 2021 May 20. doi: 10.1038/s41590-021-00930-4. Online ahead of print
- Evidence for a pathogenic role of extrafollicular, IL-10–producing CCR6+B helper T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus
Facciotti F, Larghi P, Bosotti R, Vasco C, Gagliani N, Cordiglieri C, Mazzara S, Ranzani V, Rottoli E, Curti S, Penatti A, Karnani B, Kobayashi Y, Crosti M, Bombaci M, van Hamburg JP, Rossetti G, Gualtierotti R, Gerosa M, Gatti S, Torretta S, Pignataro L, Tas SW, Abrignani S, Pagani M, Grassi F, Meroni PL, Flavell RA, and Geginat J.
PNAS first published March 17,2020; http://doi. org/10.1073/pnas.1917834117.
- IL-10 producing regulatory and helper T-cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Geginat J, Vasco M, Gerosa M, Tas SW, Pagani M, Grassi F, Flavell RA, Meroni P, Abrignani S.
Semin Immunol. (2019)
- Introduction to the Special Issue: Interleukin-10 “The surprising twists and turns of an anti-inflammatory cytokine on its way to the clinic”.
Semin Immunol. 2019 Aug;44:101343.
- Eomesodermin controls a unique differentiation program in human IL-10 and IFN-γ coproducing regulatory T cells.
Gruarin P, Maglie S, De Simone M, Häringer B, Vasco C, Ranzani V, Bosotti R, Noddings JS, Larghi P, Facciotti F, Sarnicola ML, Martinovic M, Crosti M, Moro M, Rossi RL, Bernardo ME, Caprioli F, Locatelli F, Rossetti G, Abrignani S, Pagani M, Geginat J.
Eur J Immunol. 2019 Jan;49(1):96-111.
- Intestinal IFN-γ-producing Tr1-cells co-express CCR5 and PD-1, and down-regulate IL-10 in the inflamed gut of IBD patients.
Alfen JS, Larghi P, Facciotti F, Gagliani N, Bosotti R, Paroni M, Maglie S, Gruarin P, Vasco CM, Ranzani V, Frusteri C, Iseppon A, Moro M, Crosti MC, Gatti S, Pagani M, Caprioli F, Abrignani S, Flavell RA, Geginat J.
J Allergy Clin Immunol (2018)
- The Enigmatic Role of Viruses in Multiple Sclerosis: Molecular Mimicry or Disturbed Immune Surveillance?
Geginat J, Paroni M, Pagani M, Galimberti D, De Francesco R, Scarpini E, Abrignani S.
Trends Immunol (2017) 38:498-512
- Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses.
Paroni M, Maltese V, De Simone M, Ranzani V, Larghi P, Fenoglio C, Pietroboni AM, De Riz MA, Crosti MC, Maglie S, Moro M, Caprioli F, Rossi R, Rossetti G, Galimberti D, Pagani M, Scarpini E, Abrignani S, Geginat J.
J Allergy Clin Immunol (2017) 140:797-808
- IL-10-producing forkhead box protein 3-negative regulatory T cells inhibit B-cell responses and are involved in systemic lupus erythematosus.
Facciotti F, Gagliani N, Haringer B, Alfen JS, Penatti A, Maglie S, Paroni M, Iseppon A, Moro M, Crosti MC, Stolzel K, Romagnani C, Moroni G, Ingegnoli F, Torretta S, Pignataro L, Annoni A, Russo F, Pagani M, Abrignani S, Meroni P, Flavell R, Geginat J.
J Allergy Clin Immunol (2016) 137:318-321 e5
- The light and the dark sides of Interleukin-10 in immune-mediated diseases and cancer.
Geginat J, Larghi P, Paroni M, Nizzoli G, Penatti A, Pagani M, Gagliani N, Meroni P, Abrignani S, Flavell RA.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev (2016) 30:87-93
- IL-10 promotes homeostatic proliferation of human CD8(+) memory T cells and, when produced by CD1c(+) DCs, shapes naive CD8(+) T-cell priming.
Nizzoli G, Larghi P, Paroni M, Crosti MC, Moro M, Neddermann P, Caprioli F, Pagani M, De Francesco R, Abrignani S, Geginat J.
Eur J Immunol (2016) 46:1622-32
- Signal Strength and Metabolic Requirements Control Cytokine-Induced Th17 Differentiation of Uncommitted Human T Cells.
Kastirr I, Crosti M, Maglie S, Paroni M, Steckel B, Moro M, Pagani M, Abrignani S, Geginat J.
J Immunol (2015) 195:3617-27
- IL-21 is a central memory T cell-associated cytokine that inhibits the generation of pathogenic Th1/17 effector cells.
Kastirr I, Maglie S, Paroni M, Alfen JS, Nizzoli G, Sugliano E, Crosti MC, Moro M, Steckel B, Steinfelder S, Stolzel K, Romagnani C, Botti F, Caprioli F, Pagani M, Abrignani S, Geginat J.
J Immunol (2014) 193:3322-31
- The CD4-centered universe of human T cell subsets.
Geginat J, Paroni M, Facciotti F, Gruarin P, Kastirr I, Caprioli F, Pagani M, Abrignani S.
Semin Immunol (2013) 25:252-62
- Human CD1c+ dendritic cells secrete high levels of IL-12 and potently prime cytotoxic T-cell responses.
Nizzoli G, Krietsch J, Weick A, Steinfelder S, Facciotti F, Gruarin P, Bianco A, Steckel B, Moro M, Crosti M, Romagnani C, Stolzel K, Torretta S, Pignataro L, Scheibenbogen C, Neddermann P, De Francesco R, Abrignani S, Geginat J.
Blood (2013) 122:932-42
- CCR6 is expressed on an IL-10-producing, autoreactive memory T cell population with context-dependent regulatory function.
Rivino L, Gruarin P, Haringer B, Steinfelder S, Lozza L, Steckel B, Weick A, Sugliano E, Jarrossay D, Kuhl AA, Loddenkemper C, Abrignani S, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A, Geginat J.
J Exp Med (2010) 207:565-77
- Identification and characterization of IL-10/IFN-gamma-producing effector-like T cells with regulatory function in human blood.
Haringer B, Lozza L, Steckel B, Geginat J.
J Exp Med (2009) 206:1009-17